Emotion: Neuroscience: Topics
This page will list some major (cross-level) topics related to the neural
basis of emotion.
Neuro-Biological Theories of Emotions at a Glance:
Plutchick (1980). There are 8 primary states (Fear,
Anger, Joy, Sadness, Acceptance, Disgust, Expectation, Surprise) which
can be conceived as pairs of opposites. All other emotions are mixed or
derivative states of the primary emotions. Each emotion vary in their degree
of arousal (intensity). All evolutionary levels (animals to human) have
emotions, and emotional expressions. Emotion serve an adaptive role in
helping with survival issues, and primary emotions arise as a consequence
of inadequacies between the organism and the sensory environment (including
'internal senses' such as thoughts)
Rolls (1986). Emotion can be defined as staes produced
by reinforcing stimuli. The amygdala establishes
the stimuli-reinforcement associations, the orbitofrontal
cortex manage them, and the hypothalamus
expresses the emotional state.
Pribam (1986). The whole brain is involved in emotional
experience and expression. Each part of the brain is specifically responsible
for the sensing and control of body and neural events. It is in this regulation
of brain and body states that lay emotions. Regulation is achieved through
both neural conduction, and neurochemical/hormonal actions.
Pankseep (1982). Emotions are 'translimbic'
sensory-motor command (executive) systems.
Editor: Jean-Marc Fellous.